A Lieutenant Commander is the fourth lowest rank of commissioned officer in most naval organizations.
This title was introduced in the United States Navy in 1862 with the reorganization of the service. Previous to this time, all lieutenants in command of smaller men-of-war were called "lieutenants commanding." For example, in the roster of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron in 1862 once reads:
(USS) Valley City, Lieut. Commanding S. C. Chaplin, bearing the flag of Flag Officer Goldsborough; also (USS) Commander Perry, Lieutenant Commander C. W. Flusser.
The title lieutenant commander was derived from the term "lieut. commanding."
Lieutenants were commonly put in command of smaller vessels not warranting a Commander or captain: such a lieutenant was called a "lieutenant commanding" or "lieutenant commandant" in the United States Navy, and a "lieutenant in command", "lieutenant and commander", or "senior lieutenant" in the Royal Navy. The USN settled on "lieutenant commander" in 1862, and made it a distinct rank; the RN followed suit in March 1914.
Lieutenant Commanders in Starfleet often serve as division chiefs or executive officers on heavy cruisers. They may also serve as commanding officers of corvettes and destroyers.
Starfleet used the following rank insignia to denote this rank of officer:
Some military and paramilitary groups use the rank "lieutenant commander" in their organizations:
Lieutenant Commanders within the MSS are usually placed in command of medium freighters or equivalent vessels of tonnage or capacity. They may also see service as Division Officers aboard larger vessels, such as heavy or superheavy (SuperMax) freighters and transports, or aboard MSS installations.
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